1. What is a transient variable?
A transient variable is a variable that may not be serialized.
2. Which containers use a border layout as their default layout?
The window, Frame and Dialog classes use a border layout as their default layout.
3. How are Observer and Observable used?
Objects that subclass the Observable class maintain a list of observers. When an Observable object is updated it invokes the update() method of each of its observers to notify the observers that it has changed state. The Observer interface is implemented by objects that observe Observable objects.
4. What is synchronization and why is it important?
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object’s value. This often causes dirty data and leads to significant errors.
5. What are synchronized methods and synchronized statements?
Synchronized methods are methods that are used to control access to an object. A thread only executes a synchronized method after it has acquired the lock for the method’s object or class. Synchronized statements are similar to synchronized methods. A synchronized statement can only be executed after a thread has acquired the lock for the object or class referenced in the synchronized statement.
6. What are three ways in which a thread can enter the waiting state?
A thread can enter the waiting state by invoking its sleep() method, by blocking on I/O, by unsuccessfully attempting to acquire an object’s lock, or by invoking an object’s wait() method. It can also enter the waiting state by invoking its (deprecated) suspend() method.
7. Can a lock be acquired on a class?
Yes, a lock can be acquired on a class. This lock is acquired on the class’s Class object.
8. What’s new with the stop(), suspend() and resume() methods in JDK 1.2?
The stop(), suspend() and resume() methods have been deprecated in JDK 1.2.
9. What is the preferred size of a component?
The preferred size of a component is the minimum component size that will allow the component to display normally.
10. What method is used to specify a container’s layout?
The setLayout() method is used to specify a container’s layout.
11. Which containers use a FlowLayout as their default layout?
The Panel and Applet classes use the FlowLayout as their default layout.
12. What state does a thread enter when it terminates its processing?
When a thread terminates its processing, it enters the dead state.
13. What is the Collections API?
The Collections API is a set of classes and interfaces that support operations on collections of objects.
14. What is the List interface?
The List interface provides support for ordered collections of objects.
15. How does Java handle integer overflows and underflows?
It uses those low order bytes of the result that can fit into the size of the type allowed by the operation.
16. What is the Vector class?
The Vector class provides the capability to implement a growable array of objects
17. What modifiers may be used with an inner class that is a member of an outer class?
A (non-local) inner class may be declared as public, protected, private, static, final, or abstract.
18. If a method is declared as protected, where may the method be accessed?
A protected method may only be accessed by classes or interfaces of the same package or by subclasses of the class in which it is declared.
19. What is an Iterator interface?
The Iterator interface is used to step through the elements of a Collection.
20. How many bits are used to represent Unicode, ASCII, UTF-16, and UTF-8 characters?
Unicode requires 16 bits and ASCII require 7 bits. Although the ASCII character set uses only 7 bits, it is usually represented as 8 bits. UTF-8 represents characters using 8, 16, and 18 bit patterns. UTF-16 uses 16-bit and larger bit patterns.
21. What is the difference between yielding and sleeping?
When a task invokes its yield() method, it returns to the ready state. When a task invokes its sleep() method, it returns to the waiting state.
22. Is sizeof a keyword?
The sizeof operator is not a keyword.
23. What are wrapped classes?
Wrapped classes are classes that allow primitive types to be accessed as objects.
24. Does garbage collection guarantee that a program will not run out of memory?
No, it doesn’t. It is possible for programs to use up memory resources faster than they are garbage collected. It is also possible for programs to create objects that are not subject to garbage collection
25. What is the difference between preemptive scheduling and time slicing?
Under preemptive scheduling, the highest priority task executes until it enters the waiting or dead states or a higher priority task comes into existence. Under time slicing, a task executes for a predefined slice of time and then reenters the pool of ready tasks. The scheduler then determines which task should execute next, based on priority and other factors.
26. Name Component subclasses that support painting.
The Canvas, Frame, Panel, and Applet classes support painting.
27. What is a native method?
A native method is a method that is implemented in a language other than Java.
28. How can you write a loop indefinitely?
for(;;)–for loop; while(true)–always true, etc.
29. Can an anonymous class be declared as implementing an interface and extending a class?
An anonymous class may implement an interface or extend a superclass, but may not be declared to do both.
30. What is the purpose of finalization?
The purpose of finalization is to give an unreachable object the opportunity to perform any cleanup processing before the object is garbage collected.
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